Posts Tagged ‘TPACK

The ‘learning technology by design’ (Koehler & Mishra 2005) is the framework being used for bringing academics along towards sustainable renewal of educational practice, and forms part of the institutional repositioning of learning and teaching at my university. Koehler and Mishra (2005) suggest that this approach can help academic staff respond in a sustainable manner to the pedagogical possibilities that new technologies have to offer. Learning technology by design provides academic staff with opportunities to encounter the connections between technology, content and pedagogy, and has been shown to lead to meaningful learning (Mishra & Koehler, 2006). Academics learn by doing in a collaborative and supportive environment, often tied to their attempts to solve genuine educational problems. The learning technology by design approach puts academics in a more active role as designers of technology as opposed to the role of passive consumers of technology (Koehler & Mishra, 2005), inherent in most standard how to use the technology workshops.

To prepare for the Moodle implementation, academics are shown the capabilities of the system and go through different stages of reflection during course design planning. Using the seven principles for good practice (Chickering & Gamson, 1987) as the lens to explore pedagogical possibilities in Moodle, academics, as course designers, work with curriculum designers and information technology staff in discovering different features of Moodle to address key pedagogical requirements for course delivery as espoused in the Minimum Service Standards. The Minimum Service Standards for Course Delivery communicate service expectations, which students and staff use as a point of reference.

The elements in the Minimum Service Standards provide a starting point for course design planning, aided by exemplar courses developed by Moodle Mentors. The exemplar courses not only exhibit the Moodle elements used to meet the minimum design expectations, but the exemplars also demonstrate possibilities for integrating good pedagogical practice into the design. There were no pre-defined templates provided during the pilot, but in response to requests from academic staff, a common course shell was introduced containing commonly used blocks such as Latest News, People and activities block. However, unlike the previous practice of prescribing the look and feel of the course site in Blackboard, academics as course designers shape the design of the course site and its content, often evolving from the initial requirements in the Minimum Service Standards.

During group discussions in early parts of the workshop, there are tendencies amongst academic staff to treat technology, content and pedagogy as relatively independent areas of knowledge. However as academics go through the actual course design and development process, the possibilities to recognise the complex and intertwined relationships between technology, content and pedagogy are increased (see Koehler & Mishra, 2005). Interestingly, many academics have chosen to go beyond the minimum requirements for course delivery as they begin to appreciate the liberating aspects of the new LMS that have previously inhibited innovation in other systems. What is apparent in some cases is that the seven principles through the Minimum Service Standards provided a framework and a label for what good teachers have always done, i.e. setting the environment for students to encourage active learning and providing a means to connect with each other, among other important aspects of the pedagogy of engagement (see Krause, 2005). What is also apparent is that while some academics appear risk-averse they are still willing to adopt the technology particularly if they perceived benefits for students, as Birch and Burnett have also observed (2009). The courses developed in Moodle thus far provide evidence that when academics directly assume the role of designer, actively engaging in the development of their courses, they have a greater appreciation for the technology and its connection with the content and pedagogical practices. Using the learning technology by design approach in facilitating course development, a sense of ownership is also noticeable.


Birch, D. & Burnett, B. (2009). “Bringing academics on board: Ecouraging institution-wide diffusion of e-learning environments”. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology. 25(1), 117-134.

Chickering, A.W., & Gamson, Z.F. (1987), Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. AAHE Bulletin, 39(7), 3-7.

Koehler, M.J. & Mishra, P. (2005). “Tracing the development of teacher knowledge in a design seminar: Integrating content, pedagogy and technology”. Computers & Education, 49, 740-762.

Krause, K-L. (2005). Understanding and promoting student engagement in university learning communities. Centre for the Study of Higher Education: University of Melbourne.

Mishra, P. & Koehler, M. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054.

My University has recently adopted the Moodle Learning Management System (LMS)  to replace Blackboard. The Curriculum Design Team in which I am a member is actively assisting in the implementation, one of our tasks is to help academics enhance learning and teaching practice with the use of LMS. I have finally put into paper an idea that has been in my head for sometime about helping academics develop capacity to provide scaffolding in the learning process, which incidentally supports at least four of the 7 Principles of Good Practice in Undergraduate Education (Chickering & Gamson, 1987). I spoke to an academic about this idea and he is very keen to take it up, one of the reasons is the ease with which he can produce a two-minute voice recording once a week in his iPhone. 

The central idea is to record a two minute audio in MP3 format which will then be made available in the Moodle course site and/or provide RSS to the two-minute weekly podcast. The academic will use the questions in the 2minuteMoodle framework (see illustration below) to provide an advanced organiser for his/her students, focused on the idea of scaffolding. Academics who prefer a more visual approach (also useful for hearing impaired students) may be shown how to use Voicethread, which can also be embedded on the Moodle course site. But it must be no more than two minutes duration – the rationale for this I have now documented but will be discussed in a separate post.


The 2minuteMoodle instructional scaffolding approach

The 2minuteMoodle instructional scaffolding approach


Another purpose for introducing the 2minuteMoodle approach is that I believe it supports the “Learning by Design” framework for academic development that I have been pursuing to embed in my instructional design practice. By providing academic staff a situated context for why, how and when a particular technology might be used in learning and teaching, an academic is empowered to develop knowledge of both technology and pedagogy to complement their content knowledge (Mishra & Kohler, 2006).

My next post will describe the 2minuteMoodle approach in more detail.


Chickering, A. W. & Gamson, Z. F. 1987, ‘Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education’, AAHE Bulletin, vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 3-7. 

Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A new framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record 108 (6), 1017-1054.

Being passionate about my belief is one thing, finding a reliable source for validation about such belief is quite another.  The wisdom of Punya Mishra goes a long way when convincing others about the value of contextual learning:

Teachers learning to use technology for pedagogy is best achieved by situating them in contexts that honor the rich connections between technology, the subject matter (content) and the means of teaching it (the pedagogy). This led to a pedagogical approach we have called Learning Technology by Design.

I have been a follower of the TPACK approach for sometime but can only manage to apply it in a one-to-one project-based situation, e.g. when involved in major course redesign projects. The TPACK framework has become intrinsic in my practice, so much so that I no longer think about it, it just happens. Time and again I’ve observed the holistic development of those with whom I collaborated, becoming advocates and mentors themselves. Reconnecting with Punya’s writing tonight reinforced once again why we need such a framework.

In the coming weeks, my goal is to continue the journey that I’ve started, collaborating with academic staff to learn technology by design. This time though there are opportunities to foster community of practice.

I felt it important to record my thoughts here about approaches to academic development as I take part in an institutional-wide project , a big component of which is shifting existing mindsets about the use of learning management systems and associated tools and features.

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